what is the difference between a ribonucleotide and a deoxyribonucleotide? This is a topic that many people are looking for. secret-life.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, secret-life.org would like to introduce to you Ribonucleotide reductase – Reaction and Regulation. Following along are instructions in the video below:
Everyone in this video. I will be explaining you how a single enzyme is able able to determine about the existence of our life. Very basics of our life is replication process.
Where our dna a one dna strand is becoming another dna strand. So there by a cell is able to proliferate so cell. Proliferation is net cell division.
And in cell division cell. With dna replication. Which is a most essential thing so in order to in order to make dna.
So we really need one thing. And that is the deoxyribonucleotides and how we are going to synthesize deoxyribonucleotide. So in order to make those deoxyribonucleotides.
So we need an enzyme called ribonucleotide reductase. So this video is all about how exactly this ribonucleotide reductase determines. Our existence and one of the processes that are going on and also i will explain you about regulation of five inoculated reductase and some of the applied aspects especially.
The pharmacological agents. Which will be acting on ribonucleotide reductase alright. So here is the reaction that i have written about ribonucleotide reductase enzyme function.
So we have d on nucleotides. I phosphate that i have written here so there is a ribose. This is the ribose molecules and the base is attached to the first carbon here.
And there are two phosphates attached to the fifth carbon of ribose. So basically. This is a nucleotide diphosphate note that this is a general name here nucleotide diphosphate is a general name so it can be any nucleotide diphosphate.
It can be i didnt die for i didnt type ostrich molecule that is atp it can be cited in the phosphate cdp. Which can be guanidine diphosphate or gdp or it can be you read in the phosphate that is you beeping so depending on the base that is present here. So you can replace that new ndp use anything so it can be adp gdp gdp for udp.
So in general. I have written it as ndp that is nucleotide triphosphate. Because this is a nucleotide here base is a sugar if this time two phosphates attached to the sugar.
That is why this is an id phosphate molecule. Now to synthesize dna. You need deoxynucleotide triphosphates that means ribose sugar that is present here.
Which is a pencil sugar this has to be in deoxy form and how to make this ribose into deoxyribose for that you need to remove this oxygen atom present in this hydroxyl group. And it is the second carbon. The second carbon of ribose as what eye drops will group here.
If you remove this oxygen atom. So that means you are creating a deoxyribose sugar. So that is as simple as that and how this will be done in our body for that you need this enzyme called ribonucleotide reductase.
What is my gu nucleotide reductase. Does is it is going to use a low molecular weight protein called hydra toxin in its reduced state. And you can see paradox.
In it as well to pile group studies. Sh and sh now those two protons present in these two pile groups. They will be removed by ione reductase enzyme.
So basically tired of sinusitis. Its finished. And two protons will be going to right manipulated.
Reductase and then ribonucleotide reductase is going to insert those two protons and take this oxygen out and put it as water molecules. So this is how high or adopting getting into the reaction. And you come out of the reaction as oxidize desired option.
Where you can see there is a nice by britt created overall. What ribonucleotide reductase has done here is it is going to take this oxygen out take two protons from here and release water molecules and at that time. What youre done is basically we have created a deoxy form of ribose as you can see second carbon.
Do not have a troxel group. Now and this molecule is a deoxynucleotide triphosphates. So like this adp can be converted to dep that is resonant diphosphate can be converted to the oxygen index phosphate cdp can be converted to dcdp udp can be converted to d udp and the gdp can be converted to dgp.
So. This is what is the job of ribonucleotide reductase. So what happened here is failure.
Daxing is oxidized here. Now the oxidized thyroxine. It has to be converted back into radius reduced form because we need to maintain sufficient quantities of ferredoxin.
So that is the self so that ribonucleotide reductase continue to do its function.
So how this is made possible now the oxidized iron option will be converted back into its reduced form by an enzyme called pi or adopting ducktales now this side adoption reductase. We do this through protons coming from nadp h plus h. Plus and oxidize nadh h.
Into nadp. While it is reducing ferredoxin back into its reduced form and that is the job of saira dobson. Rock.
Page enzyme. There is one more molecule that can be used here. If i regulate later erupted and that is gluten oxy.
So instead of high or adoption. So gluten. Toxin can also be used and look at adoption also as 2 fx.
Groups and at the end of the reaction you get oxidized. Gluten and oxen similar episode of in are not oxidized google docs in again. It can be converted back to back into.
It is gluten rocks change by an enzyme called butyrate oxide reductase new paradoxus reductase can take it off oxidize. The dog food. An endo reduces newton raphson.
So it means two molecules so nice. I adopting or doterra dachshund can give protons to hibernate later deducted. If i can convert entity into b.
And ep molecule. Now there are a few drugs that can inhibit. These.
This particular reaction thereby. They act as an anti cancer drugs anti cancer drugs. Basically they target cell cycle.
Whether it is g1 phase. G2 phase m. Phase.
Or a space overall. They damage the dna and thereby. Replication can be halted.
There by cell division can be halted. Now. There are some drugs here.
Which will innovate ribonucleotide reductase directly or indirectly. One of the first drugs that i would like to say gary hydroxyurea. This hydroxyurea.
It is inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase and we use this hydroxyurea in some minor product creative disorders. And thereby replication process can be haunted because ribonucleotide reductase. It will be inhibited by hydroxyurea and also note that hydroxyurea is used in the treatment of sickle cell anemia and thats because hydroxyurea through its nitric oxide mediated mechanism it is going to increase fetal hemoglobin thereby because it is going to induce gamma chain and thereby increase fetal hemoglobin levels.
And that decreases signaling process in sickle cell. Anemia and improves. The contagious condition.
Another drug that i would like to say here is vertex f in vehicle odium. This motors different gate alone iam. It is an inhibitor of thyroxine reductase on dipole is later deducted.
It can inhibit both the enzymes by inhibiting paradox. In enough danger is going to decrease availability of produced by adoption and also directly inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase overall. What this drug does.
It is going to decrease conversion of ntp into the ntp thereby ultimately suite operate replication process. And what what excess in catalonia. Which it is used in treatment of brain tumors.
Now the other drug that i would like to say here related with this particular reaction is them set up in now jump it up in it is nucleoside analog article reversibility inhibit ribonucleotide reductase enzyme thereby decreases the notion of ntp into the ntp. These are some of the drugs that can act on regulated. Reductase and that is i drop syria.
But except in catalonia and then citta by okay so alright now let me explain you how ribonucleotide reductase is regulated now the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase is a very finely controlled mechanism and i would say this is one of the complicated regulation regulatory mechanism out of all the enzymes that we see in biochemistry now regulation of regulated reductase. It will be done by a multiple nucleotide guy for triphosphate molecules or it the deoxy forms of nucleotide triphosphate. Now let me make it very simple.
Here and explain you how exactly this. Ribonucleotide reductase and ziont. Is regulated.
Now there are two molecules that you need to remember here.
Ultimately. So one is the positive allosteric modulator on ribonucleotide reductase. The atp adenosine triphosphate is a positive allosteric modulator of ribonucleotide reductase.
It means. When you have plenty of atps that that atp will go and activate ribonucleotide reductase and the negative modulator ultimately means one of the negative modulator which can control the entire ribonucleotide reductase. Enzyme.
And that is b. Atp. Molecules.
D. Atp. Molecules.
That is the oxytocin. Help phosphate is a negative electric modulator strong negative allosteric modulator that means. It is going to control the entire ribonucleotide reductase enzyme of course.
We have other deoxynucleotide triphosphates forms which can which will they will act either as positive or negative modulators on regulated reductase enzyme. But let me keep it very simple here and instead of complicating in by reducing all those things. And complicating.
The materials here okay. Now this ribonuclease read up pays itself. It is that it has two subunits and these two subunits.
They will be coded by two different genes present in different chromosomes. Now when these two subunits take combined means become dimerization or dimer form. So the active site of this particular enzyme.
It will be shared by both these subunits and also the regulator site is also shared by both the subunits now there are two simple typically exudate explained in a simple way so i have written a structure like this. It is not necessarily. The similar structure you may find it in in reality.
Just forward on now understanding purpose here so it is drawn in structure. Like this. And there are two sites here.
One is the active site. Thats where the catalysis is going on and the other is regulatory sites that your regulatory molecules will go unbind okay. Now whenever atp levels are more in this cell.
That is theta p. Is acting as a positive modulator so ill write atp here when atp binds to the regulatory sites. During that time gdp.
Sorry gdp. And you dps will bind to the exercise. So gdp will come come and bind to the active sites.
And if you will go out of the reaction as dcdp molecule and at the same time udp comes into the reaction udp is binding to this exercise. And it will go out as d udp molecules basically now what we got is state. It is converted to be cdp unity is converted to do repeat so dcdp can go on on d gtp.
Set is a triphosphate d. The aqsa cited in triphosphate and that deoxys. I didnt read phosphate which can get into dnas in the system.
Okay. Thats how we got dttp now d unity. Further it will be converted to de you can be molecules.
And d. The molecule will be converted to de tlp. Molecule and it is the oxy time it is monophosphates and the oxygen is monophosphate.
Furthermore. It will be converted to drc time. It is diphosphates and then it will be converted into deoxys emitting triphosphate and this be oxidized in triphosphate.
We can now go into dna formation. Now we go to the oxy nucleotide triphosphates for dna synthesis. But we need two more and that is the oxygen interest rate and deoxy 118 triphosphate.
We need to make them now. Whenever. There is increase in the levels of b ttp.
And that need tp what it does. It is going to come and bind to the regulatory side here so it is going to someone bind to a regulatory side that means. It is going to replace atp from the regulator.
Sides and now dttp is binding here and now this dctp.
It is theyre acting as a positive modulator down or on this particular regulatory side and thereby. When dttp is present here. It is going to bring gdp molecules here gtp molecules will bind to the active sites and gdp will come out of the reaction and dddp molecules deoxy.
One isnt by phosphate now this d octagons and ipods rate. Will be converted to deoxy guanosine. Triphosphate.
And that deoxys burns in triphosphate. Now it can go into dna. Synthesis.
Now whenever. There is accumulation of the oxidized in triphosphate so and it does this deoxy. Gonna send triphosphate now it will come and bind to the regulated site and it is going to replace the opposite five inning triphosphate now on that place you have deoxygenation triphosphate on the regulator.
Side when you have deoxy von essen. Triphosphate. In the regulator side during that time adp will cement binder.
You cite ice to set up an enzyme is now bombed with adp. Now. Adp is coming out of the reaction as b.
Adp. Molecule. Deoxyadenosine.
Triphosphates. Now the oxygen on central phosphate will be converted to deoxyadenosine radio. Steady descent diphosphate converted to the offset is nursing triphosphate and the offset in nodes in triphosphate.
Now it can go into dna synthesis. Now overall. What we got we got for all four molecules for dna synthesis.
We are dttp dctp dgtp and the datp. So we are all four of them so whenever datp accumulates and this datp now it will go unbind to the regulated side. We go invite to regulate aside and its going to replace t.
Gtp. And now your d atp binds here when the d atp binds to the regulator side has your thing being atp the strong allosteric negative moderator that means. It is going to decrease the activity of ribonucleotide reductase that means whenever d.
Atp binds here to the regulated size and x negatively by that time you have already synthesized sufficient quantities of deoxynucleotide triphosphates all four of them dctp dgtp these gtp undie atps all of them are sufficiently synthesized that is why is that a reductase activity. It decreases okay so this is how my phone is rated reductase enzyme activity is controlled so this is a fine regulation of by manipulated reductase it looks complicated compared to any other enzyme in biochemistry. But if you go slowly one by one so it is not as complicated as this thing to be so.
The first thing you really need to remember. Is when atp binds to the radial side gdp and unity comes in they will go. As bcd p.
And d. You repeat. D.
You will be ultimately convert this to dctp dgtp convert this to dtdp. Which gets into dna dttp gets into dna formation and dctp when it accumulates till someone bind to the regulator site and replace atp molecules when these http binds to regulator sites. Using that time gdp comes in go tasbeeh.
Gdp and that becomes d gdp in dgtp. Accumulates. And someone replace p.
Hp. Molecules. And during that time it gdp will come and bind.
It now also a to cement binder. When atp is going out as a dep is converted to dat piece and that gets into dna synthesis. Whenever.
There is accumulation of the atp and 90 atp will come and bind to the regulator sites. And thats a negative moderator and this is how regulated product is can be regulated. This is all about ribonucleotide reductase enzyme.
I hope this has helped you in understanding how exactly rival inflated reductase determines. The existence of this entire life especially because it is going to provide much needed deoxynucleotide triphosphates to make dna for dna to be synthesized. You really need a optimum activity of ribonucleotide blockage.
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